The Biological Significance Of ATP
Several entities are taken into or produced by the body that are tasked with the normal workings of the body system. The body at the cellular level works like a huge factory that requires multiple chains of workforce with various items being used to produce products that are useful in the body. All cellular activities require the use of a form of chemical energy to power cellular functions. Be it the removal of waste/the production of vital substrates used inside a cell. Plus without this fuel, the process becomes impossible to achieve. The energy currency in every known living being is called Adenosine triphosphate or in its short form ATP.
ATP exists as an energy-filled molecule belonging to a family of macromolecules called Nucleic acids. It is a nucleotide that also contains the 3 distinct elements found in this type of molecules. Nucleotides play multiple roles in your body, a feat made possible due to their constituent. In the structure of ATP, it contains ribose as its pentose sugar, an adenine molecule as its nitrogenous base, with three phosphate groups attached to it. The high energy derived from ATP can be traced to the P-P bonds present in its structure.
These P-P bonds are created between two phosphate groups, plus there are only two of these bonds present in the structural form of ATP. When these bonds are broken down, energy is released into the system. This energizing compound, ATP, is produced largely during the breakdown of items derived from the food we take in through different processes. After digestion in an anaerobic state, ATP is sourced from the products of this process via cellular respiration/photophosphorylation in organisms that can carry out photosynthesis.
During anaerobic conditions, ATP is created through an oxygen-independent process called fermentation. In all cases, ATP is produced by trapping the chemical energy made available in each metabolism process into a bond. This bond is created by combining an ADP molecule/AMP molecule with inorganic phosphate. ADP and AMP are mainly sourced from the breakdown of ATP.
Energy produced from ATP is used in carrying out several cellular processes which may include catabolism, transportation, anabolism, communication, movement of cells as it is seen in sperm cells, etc. Apart from serving as an energy currency in the body system, ATP can again be used for other processes in the body. ATP serves more than just being used as a fuel. It serves as one of the raw materials which are used to create the data containing molecules known as DNA.
That is not all, it can yet be used in signal transduction among cells as a means of cell intercommunication, it also helps activate amino acids during protein synthesis. ATP is a vital molecule that your body can’t do without. An absence or low supply of this molecule in your body can lead to severe medical ills and even possibly death. The biological value of ATP can never be overstated, it is the cellularly generated power on which our lives run on.