Formation Of ATP And Its Uses
You feel tired and down when you are starved, but a few minutes after you have eaten you suddenly feel energized. This is not a magic trick, there are factors responsible for this phenomenon. The food you take in usually contains nutrients that your body can derive energy from. However, it is not all nutrients your body can derive energy from, it is why your hunger doesn’t go away if you simply drink water, which is also a type of nutrient.
Energy-supplying nutrients include; lipids, carbs, and in some cases proteins. Energy is supplied to the body of all organisms in the form of Adenosine triphosphate, otherwise, known as ATP. ATP is the energy currency of the body that is required in carrying out some cellular activities. It is produced through the process of digestion of food coupled with respiration. Depending on the absence or presence of oxygen, ATP can be derived from food substances in different ways.
In eukaryotic organisms, during aerobic metabolism which occurs when oxygen is present, ATP is formed through rephosphorylation of ADP or AMP. ADP/AMP which are the raw materials for producing ATP are supplied through the breakdown of ATP. This means the raw materials of ATP were the waste produced when it was used. During cellular respiration which involves the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide, ATP is largely produced. The non-photosynthetic production of ATP is largely conducted in mitochondria which got it its name as the powerhouse of a cell. In anaerobic conditions, ATP is produced by an oxygen-independent process called fermentation.
Prokaryotes produce ATPs by using different types of electron acceptors. The importance of production and presence of ATP in the body can not be overstated. Every cellular function or activity will shut down when there exists an absence of this vital molecule in the system. Elements that inhibit the generation of ATP like efrapeptin are most times ingredients of potent poisons.