Energy Carriers apart from ATP
Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is a major energy carrier for storage and utilization by all cells in the body to carry out biological reactions. ATP is made up of high-energy unstable bonds that make it readily hydrolyzed to release its stored energy. Enzymes are responsible for catalyzing the removal of phosphates from the structure of ATP to cause energy release used to do work by cells. When a molecule of phosphate is removed from ATP, the leftover molecule is known as ADP, it contains only two phosphates.
The energy release is used to carry out several reactions within the body to facilitate growth and sustain survival. As an energy carrier, Adenosine triphosphate is the result of many reactions undergone in a cell, that picks up energy for future use. There are other energy carriers in cells apart from ATP that can pick up the functions of ATP when ATP level is low. Depending on diverse types of reactions carried out, a cell can utilize other sources of energy apart from ATP.
Cells use CTP, GTP, TTP, when ATP is found insufficient in the body. Electron carriers are also good substitutes for ATP, for example, NAD+, NADH, FAD+, FADH, etc are all used when ATP concentration is small. Energy is essential for the survival of all biological systems from the largest organism to the smallest microorganisms, it’s vital for the growth of all parts of the body. The energy needed for survival is derived from cellular breakdown of fuels like carbs and protein in meals.
When body systems are in a state of energy deficiency, ATP and other energy carriers are stripped of their phosphate molecules. But when body systems are full of energy, these energy carriers add phosphates to go from diphosphate to triphosphate version. ATP is not the only source or carrier of energy in cells, other electron carriers pick up energy to be utilized by the body too.