Derivation Of Energy From ATP
Every living thing that exists stores, transfers, and utilizes energy they derive from their habitat through the use of a molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate or otherwise called ATP. Beings obtain energy using different biological means, simple living things usually absorb nutrients which may contain energy that can be used by their body cell or cells via simple processes such as osmosis and diffusion.
However, organisms found higher on the evolutionary scale use far more complex means to obtain energy from nutrients they derive from chemically bulky substances called food. Food is ingested into the alimentary canal where they are further broken down into simpler units through a process named digestion. These products of digestion; nutrients are absorbed by the cells of this organism, plus energy is extracted from the nutrients containing energy through a process called cellular respiration. The energy extracted is stored inside a molecule called ATP, ATP is a macromolecule known as nucleic acids, like every nucleic acid it contains a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
ATP has adenine as its N base, ribose as its sugar, plus contains 3 Pi groups in its molecular structure. The energy-rich molecule is created by utilizing excess energy produced from cellular respiration to form a bond between ADP and inorganic phosphate. In essence, the energy stored inside ATP is found in its P-P bonds. There are 2 P-P bonds inside of ATP, the one trapping the higher energy is the bond between gamma phosphate and beta phosphate. The energy stored in this bond is vastly higher than the one stored inside the bond between beta phosphate and alpha phosphate.
Energies stored inside ATP is released by breaking the P-P bonds found within ATP. When done, ATP can be broken down into ADP and Pi with the release of energy. ADP can be further broken down by the release of another Pi group to give AMP. AMP does not contain any energy that can be accessed by your cells, but they still serve as vital raw materials for building ATP.