ATP stands for Adenosine triphosphate
Cellular energy is the basis on which all human beings live, without this, there’ll be no growth, all systems of the body will be shut down. ATP means Adenosine triphosphate, these molecules provide the power needed by all cells to do their work. It’s produced by ATP Synthase which couples and uncouples organic phosphates to Adenosine diphosphate, ADP, when the energy level is low or high. When the energy level is low, it tends to generate more ATP from foods eaten via mechanisms of glycolysis, TCA, and ETC.
The end product of all these reactions is the energy currency that can be spent to do work by all cells, which is the ATP. From its structure, ATP has three components; ribose sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous base present in ATP is known as Adenine, its combination with sugar is called a nucleoside. When there’s ATP in every cell of the body, their functional biological processes are carried out fluently without problems.
For example, kidney cells need a constant supply of ATP, to facilitate the process of urine production and excretion. Brain cells also need a constant supply of ATP to transmit electric impulses from one section to another 24/7 keeping us alive. The generation of ATP is done via several cellular reactions such as glycolysis. Glycolysis is a process of splitting a mol of glucose produced from carb diets into two mols of pyruvates with a release of 2 ATP monomers.
While, Kreb’s Cycle starts with oxidation of pyruvate to yield Acetyl CoA releasing a molecule of ATP. Acetyl CoA is then engaged in a cyclic reaction to yield oxaloacetate which is then transported to mitochondria for Electron Transport Chain to occur. Without ATP, metabolism will not take place, catabolism will be halted, there’ll be no flexing and relaxing of muscles, even the heart won’t beat. Humans require cellular energy to survive, meals are eaten daily to provide nutrients that are converted to energy stores for our cells.